Microbiota intestinal: impacto en la enfermedad metabólica

Mayra Daniela Delgado Cruz, Abigail Gissela Yugcha Carpio, María Soledad Cedeño Veintimilla, Pedro Gerargo de los Ríos Tomalá, Jenniffer Katherine Molina Peñaherrera

Resumen


La microbiota del intestino cumple una serie de funciones metabólicas e inmunológicas en el ser humano, lo que permite buen estado de salud. Se conoce actualmente las implicaciones que tiene la alteración de la microbiota intestinal y la respuesta adversa del hospedero a estos cambios (disbiosis) sobre las enfermedades metabólicas. El sobrepeso y la obesidad constituyen factores de riesgo para un gran número de enfermedades crónicas, como el síndrome metabólico, la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares y algunos tipos de cáncer. Es así como el desequilibrio en la composición de la microbiota intestinal se han asociado a una mayor susceptibilidad a las infecciones y los trastornos de base inmunológica y, recientemente, también a la resistencia a la insulina y al aumento del peso corporal. En relación a la evidencia actual, resulta importante investigar los efectos en la modificación de la microbiota intestinal, mediante el uso alimentos funcionales probióticos y prebióticos, a fin de intervenir y prevenir el desarrollo de la obesidad y las alteraciones metabólicas.


Palabras clave


microbiota; obesidad; enfermedad metabólica; disbiosis; función inmunológica

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23878/medicina.v21i1.1110



Revista Medicina - Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil - Facultad de Ciencias Médicas